Bio-based hydrogels scaffolds with lignin particles applied to tissue engineering
Tissue and organ failure due to disease, injury, and defects has become a major health concern. Organsâ€¯/tissue donation is the clinical way to amend the situation, however, there is a high number of people on the waiting list for transplants, in addition to the shortage of organ donors.â€¯Regarding this, tissue engineering appears as a promising solution. The use of bio-based materials for tissue engineering applications has gained extensive interest because they are non-toxic, biocompatible, and renewable. In this study, cellulose nanofibrils, lignin nanoparticles, and tragacanth gum were used to prepare multicomponent hydrogels for 3D printing scaffoldsâ€¯withâ€¯biocompatible properties to apply in soft tissue replacement. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have exceptional water-binding capacity and produce stable hydrogels with shear-thinning behavior hence attracted interest for 3D bioprinting. Lignin is interesting for biomedical applications due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Tragacanth gum (TG) is non-toxic, safe for ingestion, and has good rheological properties, however,â€¯itsâ€¯potential biomedical applications haven't been fully investigated. Resultsâ€¯ofâ€¯our workâ€¯showed that rheological behaviorâ€¯wasâ€¯improved by adding TG to the hydrogel composition. Similar outcome was observed for scaffold swelling capacityâ€¯andâ€¯degradationâ€¯rate,â€¯the properties were improvedâ€¯with increasing of TG content in the hydrogels.â€¯Values ofâ€¯the compressiveâ€¯Youngâ€™sâ€¯moduli for theâ€¯hydrogels allowedâ€¯to classify them as soft gels on the level between skin and muscle tissues.â€¯The properties combinationâ€¯ofâ€¯these materials makes plant-based hydrogelsâ€¯appealing for designingâ€¯materials with potential of improving patientsâ€™ lives through regenerative medicine.